People on the steps of the Capitol chanted "vote them out!" and "the whole world is watching", messages that at times met with jeers and boos from others in the crowd.
Trump watched the vote on a large-screen television tuned to Fox News in a wood-paneled cabin on the plane.
Acrimonious to the end, the battle featured a climactic roll call that was interrupted several times by protesters in the Senate galleries before Capitol Police removed them.
Susan Collins several times ahead of her announcement Friday that she would support Brett Kavanaugh's nomination to the Supreme Court - and he's been out of office for almost a decade.
A moderate Supreme Court justice retired, a critical swing vote who despite being appointed by a Republican president had regularly sided with the bench's liberal wing on social issues.
Disputes involving abortion, immigration, gay rights, voting rights and transgender troops all could be heading towards the nine justices soon and Kavanaugh is widely expected to cast conservative votes in all of them.
The two didn't mention Kavanaugh by name or refer to the confirmation fight. Lisa Murkowski (R-Alaska), all voted to confirm Kavanaugh.
"We must always remember that it is when passions are most inflamed that fairness is most in jeopardy", said Collins, perhaps the chamber's most moderate Republican.
Both oaths will be administered so Kavanaugh can participate in the work of the court immediately.
Kavanaugh fought back hard, denying the accusations in angry and tearful testimony before the Senate Judiciary Committee that was viewed live on television by around 20 million people.
"I have no doubt", Trump said, telling reporters that he had chosen Kavanaugh, in part, because "there's nobody with a squeaky-clean past like Brett Kavanaugh because he is an outstanding person and I'm very honored to have chosen him".
The brutal hearing sparked a supplemental Federal Bureau of Investigation dive into Kavanaugh's background and a week-long delay of the Senate vote.
Trump also called Kavanaugh, as well as Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell and House Speaker Paul Ryan, en route to Kansas, White House Press Secretary Sarah Sanders said.
"I applaud and congratulate the U.S. Senate for confirming our GREAT NOMINEE, Judge Brett Kavanaugh, to the United States Supreme Court", Trump tweeted. Joe Manchin of West Virginia, announced they, too, would support Kavanaugh.
Trump, throughout the day, insisted Kavanagh would not be tainted by the sexual assault allegations from Christine Blasey Ford and others that almost tanked his nomination, declaring he was "100 percent" certain his nominee was innocent. "But I think it will become a shorthand, at least on our side, for a double standard", said Sen.
The 53-year-old justice's wife, children, and parents were in attendance.
It represents the culmination of a decades-long project by the conservative movement to construct a like-minded majority on the Supreme Court which has been a defining and unifying cause in successive congressional and presidential campaigns.
"When you say 'Kavanaughed, ' I don't know what you'll be saying in the future".
Since Christine Blasey Ford came forward last month to accuse Kavanaugh of sexually assaulting her when they were high school students in the 1980s, the nomination has effectively become a referendum on whether senators believe Ford or Kavanaugh.
"We have a lot of women that are extremely happy - a tremendous number - because they're thinking of their sons, they're thinking of their husbands and their brothers and their uncles and others and women are, I think, extremely happy", he said. "I do not think we've done as thorough and fulsome a job of assessing the facts and the allegations as we should have".