Mohammad Javad Zarif will leave late Saturday for visits to Beijing, Moscow and Brussels, a spokesman said Friday, holding meetings with all five of the remaining parties to the 2015 nuclear deal.
"Israel's claim that it had targeted Iranian assets in Syria has no substance".
That is despite Israel's claims it struck dozens of Iranian targets inside Syria early on Thursday as part of "Operation House of Cards".
The Syrian envoy rejected the Israeli claim that its assault had been directed at Iranian infrastructure.
The Israeli military stated that the Israeli Air Force strikes severely weakened Iran's military infrastructure in Syria, crowning the air raids "a great success".
Israel and its allies have blamed the Iranian Revolutionary Guards (IRGC) for initiating Thursday's exchange by launching missiles into the Golan Heights, which Israel occupies.
But Iran flatly denied the Israeli version of events, saying Israel's attacks were carried out on false "pretexts".
"Six Syrian soldiers and 21 foreign fighters, including 11 Iranians" were among the dead, said the group's director, Rami Abdel Rahman.
Iran must tread a delicate line as it seeks to show resolve against Trump and the Israeli strikes without alienating the European partners it needs to salvage something from the nuclear deal.
Zarif on Tuesday will meet with his counterparts from Germany, France and the United Kingdom in Brussels.
The defense minister welcomed Iran's statement that it did not want an escalation between the two countries and stressed that Israel was also not looking for more confrontation with anyone.
"Officials shouldn't trust France and Britain".
"They need to remember the saying that if it rains on us, it'll storm on them".
In Jerusalem, around 200 Jews gathered at the Western Wall for prayers "against the enemy".
Before leaving, Mr Zarif published a government statement on his Twitter page, slamming the "extremist administration" of US President Donald Trump for abandoning "an accord recognised as a victory of diplomacy by the global community".
He said that it was a mistake to think that Thursday morning's attacks on the Iranian bases had completely solved the problem, but that the army was ready for anything and would continue to do whatever necessary to ensure Israel is secure.
"These actions are further proof that the Iranian regime's reckless actions pose a severe threat to regional peace and security".
Trump spoke with British Prime Minister Theresa May on Friday, and "both leaders condemned the Iranian regime's provocative rocket attacks from Syria", the White House said.
Trump had long threatened to withdraw from the accord, saying it was too easy on Iran.
The deal, signed between Iran and world powers, including Russian and the United States, had eased economic sanctions on Iran in return for the country reducing its nuclear programme.
"We did not cross Iran's borders", he said.